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Introduction

  •  It is identified as the cause of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan a city in the Hubei Province of China
  •  Its spread resulted in an epidemic throughout china where it resulted in number of cases throughout the world
  •  World Health Organization named the disease COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019
  •  Virus that causes COVID-19 is named as severe acute respiratory severe syndrome coronavirus 2 previously, it was known as 2019-nCoV

How It Spreads

COVID-19 infection mainly spreads through:

Person-to-person : 

  • People who are in close contact with another person  (within about 6 feet)
  • When an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks
  • These droplets can pass in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs

 

Indirect transmission :

  • By touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching mouth, nose, or and eyes
  • Virus may also spreads from person who has no symptoms

 

Environmental contamination :

  • Through contaminated surfaces 

 

What Are The Symptoms

Infected person have the following symptoms and may suspect to have COVID 19

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Fever

Short-term increase in body temperature can help the body to fight off illness

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Sore Throat

It is painful, dry, or scratchy feeling in the throat, caused by infections, or by environmental factors like dry air

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Headache

Very common condition that causes pain and discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck

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Cough and Sneeze

It is defensive reflex that helps in protecting body from irritants like: mucus, smoke, allergens, mold, and pollen

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Difficulty in Breathing

People experience trouble in breathing whey they have infections of the lung

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Chest Pain

It is the discomfort or pain that can be felt anywhere along body between neck and upper abdomen

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When To Consult Doctor

Every person should monitor their health regularly
Consult to doctor when you have the following symptoms

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    High Fever

    Consult to doctor if body temperature exceeds 103°F (39.4°C)

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    Shortness of Breath

    It makes hard to breathe deeply.It is a symptom of pneumonia which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Cough and sneeze

    Dry cough is the most common symptom of COVID19.Sneeze is a way of removing irritants from your nose or throat

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    Chest Pain

    Any organ or tissue in chest can be the source of pain, including heart, lungs, esophagus, muscles, ribs, or tendons

How To Protect From COVID -19

Infected person have the following symptoms and may suspect to have COVID 19

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Stay at home

It is preferable to stay at home when you have mild symptoms of COVID 19

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Isolate Yourself

Always practice to maintain social distance (atleast 6 feet)

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Wash Your Hands

Use soap and water to wash your hands for 20 seconds.

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Clean all the Surfaces

Clean the rooms and bathrooms with disinfectant

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Use Mask

Always use mask and gloves if you feel sick or if you are around sick people

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Don’t share personal households items

Avoid sharing personal items like towels, utensils, rooms etc.

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Advice For Caregivers Of COVID – 19

Care taker must always wear cloth face covering when taking care of sick people.
Throw out the gloves when comes in contact with sick person’s body fluids such as saliva, mucus.
Wear gloves when you have contact with sick person’s blood, stool or body fluids such as mucus, urine and vomit

What you should do

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Proper Hand Wash

Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds after meeting sick persons

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What you should do

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Wash and dry laundry

For washing dirty clothes use hot water if possible and then clean hands properly

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What you should do

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Avoid sharing belongings

Avoid sharing personal items with sick people.The person who is sick should eat and sleep in separate room

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What you should do

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Use trash can

All used disposable mask, gloves and contaminated items should be thrown in a trash can

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What you should do

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Practice social distance

COVID 19 always spreads when in close contact through droplets, coughs, sneeze.

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What you should do

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Provide medical support

Help the patient in following the doctor’s instructions properly

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What you should do

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Clean and disinfect

Always clean and disinfect the highly touched surfaces everyday

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Monitor your health

If any symptoms like cough, and fever is observed then consult to doctor and follow their advice

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How Cloth Face Covering Helps

  • Helps in preventing the spread of COVID 19 
  • Helps in protecting people who are at  higher risk of severe illness
  • Mostly reduces the spread of virus if used by people in public
  • The spread of COVID-19 can be reduced when cloth face coverings are used along with other preventive measures
  • Cloth face coverings are not personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • They are not substitutes for PPE such as N95 respirators or medical facemasks in workplaces where respirators or facemasks are recommended to protect the wearer
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How To Wear Face Cloth Coverings

  • Wear it by covering your face correctly
  • Wash your hands before wearing mask
  • Ensure that nose and mouth are secured under chin
  • Fix it in such a way that you can breathe easily 
  • Use it to protect from others (especially in public)
  • Social distance should be followed everyday every time in public
  • Remove it carefully when you are in home

Note : Cloth face coverings should not be used in children who are under age 2, who has breathing problem

How to Wash Cloth Face Covering

Washing machine

  • Wash in regular laundry with detergent and hot water

Washing by hand

  • Prepare the bleach in hot water and soak the face covering for 5 mintutes and dry it in sunlight

 

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What is Social Distancing

  • Social distancing also knows as physical distancing
  • Limits face to face contact from others
  • Best way to reduce the spread of the virus
  • Practice atleast 6 feet distance from other person 
  • Wear mask even while maintaining social distance
  • Why to practice :
  • Mainly spreads among people who are in close contact when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks

Why Hand Wash

  • Regular hand wash is the best way to remove germs, avoid from getting and prevent the spread of virus
  • Wash hands with soap and water, if not available use hand sanitizer that contains atleast 60% of alcohol

 

When to wash :

  • Before eating
  • Before and after using toilet
  • Before cooking
  • Before wearing mask
  • Before entering in to sick person’s room
  • Before touching face
  • After leaving public place

Hand Washing Steps

Wash hands with soap and water, if not available use hand sanitizer that contains atleast 60% of alcohol

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Rinse Water
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Use Soap
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Wash your palms
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Scrub Each Fingers
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Finger Interlaced
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Base of Thumbs
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Scrub Nails
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Wash your Wrist
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Rinse off Soap with Water
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Dry hands with Towel, tissue or Dryer
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Hands Are Clean

What Is Isolation

  • Isolation - Separate  infected people with the virus from people who are not  infected
  • People in isolation should stay in home until it is safe for them to be around others
  • In home they should separate themselves from by staying in separate room

 

Who need to be isolated :

  • People who have symptoms of COVID 19
  • People who are unable to recover at home
  • People who are asymptomatic but have tested positive for COVID 19

 

Precautions to follow :

  • Stay in separate room
  • Use separate bedsheet, utensils, towels,
  • Use separate bathroom
  • Avoid sharing personal items
  • Eat in separate room
  • Wear mask all the time if possible
  • Avoid contact with the house members

 

Isolated person can be around others after :

  • No fever for 3 days 
  • Improvement in respiratory symptoms

 

If tested positive for COVID 19 but showing no symptoms :

  • Then you can be with others after 10 days have passed since test

 

Incase of weakened immune system :

  • Need to stay in home for more than 10 days
  • If necessary testing may be recommended by the health care provider
  • Weakened person can be with other after two negative test results

 

Any person who had came in contact with COVID 19 :

  • They should stay in home for 14 days after exposure

What Is Quarantine

  • Quarantine – Keeps any person who might have been exposed to COVID-19
  • It helps in preventing the spread of disease from unknown person who have been infected with virus

 

Who need to be in quarantine :

  • Any person who has been in close contact with person of COVID 19
  • If you shared personal households with infected person
  • If provided care to person who is infected with COVID 19
  • If had direct contact with the person 
  • If you were in 6 feet distance with infected person 

 

Precautions to follow :

  • Stay home for 14 days after having in contact with the person who has COVID 19
  • Stay away from persons who are at high risk of getting COVID 19
  • Keep monitoring symptoms like cough, cold, Shortness of breath and fever (100.4?F)

 

Precautions at work place

Simple steps helps in preventing the spread of COVID 19 : 

1. Ensure your workplaces are clean and hygienic :

  • Desks, tables, laptops, telephones should be disinfected everyday

2. Promote regular and thorough hand-washing by employees :

  • Place sanitizing hand rub dispensers in prominent places around the workplace
  • Display posters in promoting hand washing

3. Maintain good respiratory hygiene in the workplace :

  • Wear face masks or paper tissues available at workplaces

4. All employees are suggested to take national travel advice before going on business trips

How To Manage COVID – 19 Risk When Organising Meetings And Events

  • Check the advice from the authorities in the community on where to hold the meeting or event and follow their advice
  • Develop plan to prevent infection at the meeting or event
  • Develop and agree a response plan in case someone at the meeting becomes ill with symptoms of COVID-19
  • During meeting arrange seats atleast 1meter apart
  • Make sure the meeting room is well ventilated

How To Get Tested

Test available : 

        1. Viral test

        2. Antibody test

 

1. Viral test :

  • Helps in identifying current infection
  • It involves samples from respiratory system to find out any infection with SARS-CoV-2
  • For few test results are available in less than 1 hour
  • Few test takes 1-2 days where they must be sent to laboratory

 

After viral test is done :

  • Stay in contact with your doctor
  • If tested positive for COVID 19 – Follow the precautionary steps
  • If tested negative for COVID 19 – It only mean that the person is not infected at the time of sample collection and could still spread the virus later
  • Hence it is mandatory to consult doctor if mild symptoms are observed even after the test 

 

2. Antibody test :

  • It helps in identifying past infection with the virus
  • Antibodies are proteins that helps in fighting the infection and protect against the disease
  • If viral testing is delayed then antibody test will not help in examining the current infection because it can take 1-3 weeks for the body o make antibodies

 

If tested positive :

  • Talk to your healthcare provider and follow the instructions
  • Protect yourself from others since the virus could infect again
  • In work place it is advisable to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) 

 

If tested negative :

  • Take precautionary steps when in public or at workplace.



 

Precautions To Follow

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Stay home as much as possible
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Wear your mask all the time
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Cover your coughs and sneezes
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Clean all the surfaces with disinfectant
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Monitor your symptoms
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Wash hands regularly with soap and water
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Maintain social distance atleast 6 feet
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Stay physically active
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Maintain proper diet